There are many modes of transport involved in international freight transport, including ocean transportation, railway transportation, air transportation, river transportation, postal transportation, road transportation, pipeline transportation, Continental bridge transportation, and international transportation by various modes of transportation. Intermodal transport, etc. Several methods commonly used in China are introduced.
In international cargo transportation, the most widely used in marine transportation.
At present, the volume of shipping accounts for more than 80% of the total international cargo transportation. Marine transportation is so widely used because it has the following distinct advantages over other international modes of cargo transportation:
(1) The ability to pass is large. Marine transportation can take advantage of the natural waterway extending in all directions. It is not as restricted as trains and cars, and its passage capacity is very large.
(2) The large volume of transportation. The transport capacity of marine transport vessels is far greater than that of railway transport vehicles. For example, the load capacity of a 10,000-ton ship is generally equivalent to the load capacity of 250-300 wagons.
(3) Low shipping costs. According to the scale economy, because of the large volume of transportation and the long-range, the transportation cost per ton of freight is small, so the freight rate is relatively low.
Although marine transportation has the above advantages, it also has shortcomings. For example, marine transportation is greatly affected by climate and natural conditions, the flight period is not easy to be accurate, and the risk is high. In addition, the speed of ocean transportation is relatively low.
In international cargo transportation, railway transportation is the main transportation mode after marine transportation. The import and export goods for marine transportation are mostly concentrated and dispersed by rail transportation.
Railway transportation has many advantages. It is generally not affected by climatic conditions. It can guarantee normal transportation throughout the year, and it has a large volume, a high speed, a high degree of continuity, and maybe less risky during operation. The procedures for handling rail freight are simpler than ocean transportation, and the consignor and consignee can handle the consignment and delivery procedures at the nearest departure station (shipping station) and destination station.
Air transportation is a modern mode of transportation. Compared with marine transportation and railway transportation, it has the advantages of fast transportation speed, high cargo quality and no restrictions on ground conditions. Therefore, it is best for transporting urgently needed supplies, fresh goods, precision instruments and valuables.